fish in a seine net

A Selected Bibliography

Victor S. Kennedy, Ph.D.
Joseph A. Mihursky, Ph.D.
University of Maryland
Center for Environmental Science

Contents of the Bibliography

The bibliography focuses on aquatic invertebrates and fish, and includes information on cold as well as warm temperatures. While most of the references concern whole organisms, there are some that involve molecular, cellular or tissue studies. There are no references, however, to plants and few to microorganisms, parasites or insects. Nearly all the references have appeared in peer-reviewed journals, though a few reports are included. There are no references to theses or dissertations.

The original bibliography of 3,453 entries ends in about 1993. Commercial bibliographies are available that provide references since 1993. Because it was not possible to examine every reference, there may be spelling mistakes in some citations a few references do not include complete information such as full pagination. Table I lists all the journals that were examined.

With your help, we would like to maintain the usefulness of the on-line bibliography. Please use the form below to send us citations for possible inclusion in the bibliography. There have been 46 additions to the bibliography (3,499 citations in all).

Search The Bibliography

1. By Subject

If you search by subject, you will call up more citations than if you searched by keyword; this is because Dr. Kennedy has assigned each reference to one or more subject headings.

Select a subject:


2. By Keyword

Enter the keyword(s) or phrase to search the more than 3,400 entries. Following your entry with an asterisk (*) will give you a wildcard search for your phrase, keyword or name (e.g., ocean* will find pages that contain ocean, oceans, oceanography, etc.). Only the citations are searched.

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As a phrase Any of these words All of these words

Historical Background

Temperature has long been recognized as a major environmental factor at the molecular, cellular, tissue, organism and ecosystem levels of biological hierarchy. Interest in temperature effects by researchers and managers accelerated in the 1960s and 1970s as expanding demand for electrical power led to the increased construction of steam-electric generation stations.

Such facilities used water as a coolant in the process of generating electricity. The cooling water became heated as a result and was usually discharged back into the donor water body. Concern about the effects of this industrially-heated discharge on aquatic species and communities led to a major increase in research into temperature on aquatic life. The concern accelerated with industry proposals to heat virtually 100 percent of large non-tidal riverine flows during summer low-flow conditions.

During these early years, there was a lack of understanding of the temperature requirements of most aquatic organisms, and water quality regulation generally omitted any reference to temperature. With the consequent interest in "thermal pollution" and the environmental effects of energy conversion systems, Victor Kennedy and Joseph Mihursky produced two temperature bibliographies that were published as reports by the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science at the Chesapeake Biological Laboratory. For a number of years after the release of these bibliographies, Dr. Charles Coutant of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory published an annual annotated bibliography from the temperature-related literature.

Most recently, the scientific debate over global warming has captured scientific interest, and renewed attention has centered on the effects of temperature changes to ecosystems and natural resources. For this reason, the authors have developed this bibliography to assist scientists and mangers in becoming familiar with past research results.

Table I. Journals Used

Journals examined to provide references for this bibliography. For most journals, we searched back to the late 1960s, except, of course, in the case of journals that began publishing thereafter.

American Malacological Bulletin
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
Biological Bulletin
Bulletin of Marine Science
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Canadian Journal of Zoology
Chesapeake Science/Estuaries
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A.
Ecological Monographs
Environmental Biology of Fishes
Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science
Fishery Bulletin
Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Journal of Fish Biology
Journal of the Marine Biological Association U.K.
Journal of Shellfish Research
Limnology and Oceanography
Marine Behavior and Physiology
Marine Biology
Marine Biology Letters
Marine Ecology Progress Series
Netherlands Journal of Sea Research
Physiological Zoology
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society


Victor S. Kennedy is a professor at the Horn Point Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, PO Box 775, Cambridge, Maryland 21613. E-mail:

Joseph A. Mihursky is a professor at the Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, PO Box 38, Solomons, Maryland 20688. E-mail:


We acknowledge the assistance of Jim Bird in our literature search. Production of the original typescript was made possible by the careful work of Joan Curran, Theresa Eastman, Jane Gilliard, Anna Ruth McGinn, and Bonnie Sami. The authors also thank Maryland Sea Grant for its assistance in final production and making the bibliography available on the worldwide web.

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